The biological form of a molybdenum atom is an organic molecule known as moco – which contains enzyme. Therefore, all moly-B dependent enzymes are necessary for human health and a key component in the production of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, cobalt, lead, nickel, silver and copper. Sources: 2

Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid, which contributes to the plasma antioxidant capacity of the blood by forming a molybdenum – bicarbonate – a component that is reduced. Sulphite oxidase catalyzes a reaction in which bees produce sulphur – which contains amino acids such as sulphite and sulphide. Xanthines also oxidize to form uric acid, which contributes to plasma antioxidants and the ability of the blood. The sacred boron atom is the reduced component of moco, the biological form of an organic molecule. Sources: 2

Also known as a substitute for Mo, iron and vanadium, molybdenum is contained in nitrogenase enzymes involved in the final step of reducing molecular nitrogen. Tetrathiomolybdate (thiolybdate) with its four sulphur atoms can form the basis for copper – it prevents copper uptake and blocks the activity of copper-dependent enzymes. Ramen is the site of high sulphide production due to its high concentration of sulphuric acid and sulphide, a by-product of sulphur oxidation. Sources: 2, 4

Molybdenum is contained in an enzyme called xanthine oxidase (XO) that reduces nitrogen from ammonia (a free hydrogen gas) in protons, electrons and electron transport chains. This process, which consumes energy, is the most efficient energy – it is used in chemistry and requires only a fraction of the energy needed to produce oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Sources: 4, 6

XO is responsible for the uptake of two molecules called hypoxanthine and xanthine and helps to convert them into uric acid (UA). A link between XO and UA is in diseases such as gout, often referred to as “gout,” in which crystals of UA can accumulate in the joints. Sources: 6

Drugs used to treat these conditions often work by blocking the activity of XO. The ADH enzyme activity is critical for the breakdown of the neurotransmitters listed above, and the breakdown rate of these molecules is much higher than for any other. In addition to its well-known role in gout and UA, molybdenum is also expected to play an important role in the development of many other diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, as well as cancer. Sources: 6

Molybdenum is a trace element that is considered a micronutrient, which means that the nutrient is needed in very small amounts. It is also known that a unique protein called amidoxime – a reducing component of the protein – is needed. Sources: 6, 8

Molybdenum – dependent enzymes act as enzymes that carry out important chemical conversions in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. Almost all living organisms require at least one or more of these enzymes for their metabolic processes. Molybdenum, which is dependent on this enzyme, is therefore needed for human health and is an important source of nutrients for human health as well as for many other biological processes in nature. Sources: 8

For, however tiny the quantity required, the consequences of his absence or lack of it are serious. Too much selenium is inherently toxic, and too little of it can be fatal in the absence of adequate nutrition, especially in children. Sources: 0, 8

Molybdenum is a key component of the enzyme nitrogenase, which enables the production of nitrogen and other nitrogenous compounds such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This takes the form of nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid, as well as some other compounds. Sources: 0

The metal is recovered commercially through the direct mining of molybdenum, but also as a product of copper mining. As an alloying element in steel and cast iron, it is unparalleled, and the industry is striving to develop even more materials that benefit from the alloying properties of the metal. Possible substitutes are tungsten in tools and steel, as well as other metals such as copper, nickel, cobalt, iron and nickel. Sources: 0, 5

Although molybdenum is a valuable alloying element, its stock is not abundant and new stocks are being sought. It occurs naturally in many foods and is also available as a dietary supplement. Sources: 1, 5

Molybdenum is a cofactor synthesized by the body and whose function requires amidoxime – a reducing component of function. Xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase (mARC) are also involved in the metabolization of drugs and toxins (3,6). Sources: 1

Other applications include the production of aldehyde oxidase and mARC and the synthesis of molybdenum sulfate (2,3,4). Sources: 7

Molybdenum is mined as the main ore and recovered through copper and tungsten mining, but the main commercial source of molybdenum is the mineral m holyb denit (mos2). It is used to give superior strength to steel and other alloys at high temperatures and is found in a wide range of metals including copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, lead, zinc and copper. 

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