Piracetam is approved in Europe for the treatment of seizures and is sold as Nootropil. It belongs to a class of drugs called racetam, which includes aniracetams, fasoracetamps, phenylpiracetamas and adrafinils. These drugs act on a receptor in the brain known as acetylcholinesterase (AC) receptor, one of the most important receptors in our brain. Sources: 7

It is thought that stimulating the AMPA receptor improves signal transmission between neurons, improves cognition, and improves nervous system function. Piracetam improves cognition in hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and also improves memory (a kind of learning) in normal people. Sources: 3, 7

In the US, piracetam has been used to treat Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, schizophrenia and other neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Sources: 3

One of the most intriguing effects of piracetam is that it promotes transcallosal response, communication between the two sides of the brain. This is known to be associated with flashes of creativity and recorded in the brain after a creative thought flash (e.g. a “flash of inspiration” or “flick”). Sources: 3, 4

As in many other studies, the incidence of mild adverse events in this study was higher in the piracetam group than in the placebo group and in both the Pir and placebo groups. This is routinely confirmed in the PIR literature and is therefore considered to be related to the brain’s transcallosal response, not any other side effect. Sources: 4

For this reason, choline is often recommended as a supplement for all those taking piracetam, as well as an addition to other dietary supplements such as vitamin B12 and calcium. Sources: 5

Piracetam is also thought to modulate glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter involved in over 90% of all synaptic compounds. Glutamate is responsible for synaptic plasticity, which is a key component of the brain’s ability to learn, as well as memory and learning. Synapses are imbued with the ability to strengthen or weaken synapses over time. By increasing sensitivity to glutamate receptors, Pir-acetam can improve the memory or learning ability of children and adults. Sources: 5

In older adults, piracetam was used to improve memory function and reduce dementia symptoms as well as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Sources: 2

Despite Piracetam’s long-standing reputation as an anti-Alzheimer’s drug, there is little research to suggest that it improves cognition at all, despite its long history of use. Sources: 2

The FDA has recently warned of the potential dangers of nootropics in general, but Cohen says no real action has been taken against the supplement companies that openly use piracetam. Despite the fact that the drug itself is not approved, there is no evidence that it works on the GABAergic system, and its supposed benefit is anecdotal at best. Pir-acetam is a drug with a long history of failure in clinical trials as a medicine for Alzheimer’s disease and is one of the most expensive drugs on the U.S. market. Sources: 2, 3

Some research even suggests that GABA may actually inhibit memory and learning, and piracetam may increase the risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders in these states. Sources: 3

Side effects are rare and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, nausea and vomiting, and vomiting and diarrhoea. Its efficacy has been documented in a number of clinical trials, such as the piracetam trial in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Sources: 0, 3

Piracetam is a product of UCB Pharma, originally marketed in 1971 as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders, originally from UCB Pharma. Sources: 0

Piracetam is an active substance that acts on cognitive function through sedation and stimulation and is used to improve cognitive functions. It is a cognitive-enhancing substance and has been used in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders and other mental illnesses. Sources: 0, 1

Unfortunately, there are few studies that have been conducted on the effects of piracetam on cognitive function, and the overall role of improving cognition is not entirely certain. Sources: 1

Anecdotal evidence and clinical studies indicate that piracetam is an effective brain booster and has been developed as a cognitive enhancer. It is definitely best known for its use in treating depression and anxiety, but it is most widely used for this purpose. The proven benefits of the nootropic, as well as its low cost, make it a widely used nootropic for a wide range of medical purposes. Sources: 5

Although the clinical efficacy of piracetam is controversial, it has also been used to treat cognitive impairment in old age and dementia after brain injuries and strokes, as well as mild to moderate dementia. Studies have shown that its impact on cognition is measurable as we age, and that older adults experience less of the organic cognitive decline typically associated with normal aging. Piracetams have been shown to improve impaired cognitive function by taking advantage of various conditions of impaired brain function. Sources: 5, 6

Other previous studies suggest that piracetam has shown neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects by enhancing the enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential. Although initial results indicate that these effects can also be associated with effects on mitochondrial dynamics, the exact relationship between these parameters remains unclear. Sources: 6

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